The money was allegedly diverted to shell companies in seven countries, including the US, UK, France and Ireland, official sources said.
CBI and ED sources claimed the evidence would strengthen their case for Mallya's extradition from the UK.
An official refused to divulge the exact amount laundered by Mallya from the Rs 6,027 crore loan money but said "it's huge".
Mallya, who could not be contacted for his response, has previously denied charges of wrongdoing.
"We received information that Mallya, using his company and associates, laundered a major chunk of this Rs 6,027 crore loan to several countries. Now, we have established links with shell companies and bank accounts in at least seven countries. Letters rogatory have already been sent to the US, the UK, France and Ireland and we will get complete details soon," the official said.
Sources in the CBI and ED, however, maintain that Mallya went about the fraud in a "systematic" way. "Vijay Mallya would repay some part of the loan, which allowed him to gain confidence of the banks, which gave him further loans.
In all, he took Rs 6,027 crore in loans from a consortium of 17 banks," said the official. SBI had the maximum exposure of Rs 1,600 crore. Offiials said the fresh chargesheets having details of 'systematic money laundering' through shell companies in various countries should beef up the case against Mallya.
A plea for Mallya's extradition from the UK, where he fled on March 2 last year, is being heard on the basis of a Rs 900 crore IDBI Bank loan fraud/money laundering case in the court of senior district judge (chief magistrate) Emma Arbuthnot at 81, Marylebone Road, London.